Journal Abstracts

Below are a list of Abstracts from recent Journal articles. Please click to display each case detail.

Hypnotherapy for relief of pain and other symptoms in paliative care patients: a pilot study

By Tim Harlow, Paddy Jones, Diane Shepherd, Ann Hong, George Walker, Colin Greaves
Volume 30, Issue 4 (p163-174)

There is limited understanding of the role, scope, practicality and evidence for the value of hypnotherapy in palliative care. This was a pilot study to test the feasibility of researching hypnotherapy in palliative care and to begin to explore issues such as recruitment, effect sizes and appropriate symptoms to address. The study design was a randomized eight-week crossover study of four treatments of hypnotherapy with waiting list controls using MYMOP2 questionnaires. The participants, 32 adult patients, in-patient and out-patient, with life limiting illness, were referred over two years. 23 (72%) patients entered the study, 11 (34%) completed. 11 (34%) died between referral and completion. There were some improvements in symptoms which did not reach statistical significance. This study suggests that hypnotherapy may have a place in the management of symptoms in palliative care patients and suggests ways to research this further including study design and power calculations.

Complex regional pain syndrome: A case report of the use of hypnotherapy to control the pain of complex regional pain syndrome type 1

By Nigel Bird
Volume 30, Issue 4 (p175-178)

This case report describes the use of hypnotherapy in a general medical practice setting to help control the pain of complex regional pain syndrome for a 67 year-old woman who had had the condition for five years, with previously inadequate pain control despite maximum tolerated doses of analgesic medication and input from specialists in the local Pain Clinic and Orthopaedic Clinic.

Successful treatment of snoring using hypnosis

By David Kraft
Volume 30, Issue 4 (p179-188)

The following case study reports the successful treatment of a female patient, aged 25, with a long history of chronic snoring. Following nasal endoscopy, which confirmed that there was no anatomical reason for her complaint, she was referred to the present author who made further investigations regarding her sleeping habits. In the first session, it became clear that, during a period of at least ten years, she never felt comfortable at night: she often slept with her mouth open and with her neck raised upwards. Using a naturalistic induction (Erickson & Rossi, 1981), she was given indirect suggestions to relearn how to sleep calmly and ‘like a child’. Both direct and indirect suggestions were also given to breathe in through her nose and out of her mouth and that, whenever she felt uncomfortable, anxious or stressed, she should turn over onto her side and relax immediately (Kraft, 2003a). The patient made a remarkable recovery.

Better long-term outcome for hypnotherapy than for CBT in adults with ADHD: Results of a SIX-month follow-up

By Seppo Hiltunen, Maarit Virta, Anita Salakari, Mervi Antila, Esa Chydenius, Markus Kaski, Risto Vataja, Matti Iivanainen, Markku Partinen
Volume 30, Issue 3 (p118-134)

This is the first controlled, randomized follow-up study investigating the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in treating adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim was to compare the follow-up outcome of short cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and hypnotherapy. Six-month follow-up data were analyzed from 10 weekly individual treatments with cognitive hypnotherapy (n = 8) and CBT (n = 9). The treatment benefits were measured by self-report ADHD symptom scales (BADDS, SCL-16), psychiatric symptom scales (SCL-90, BDI-II), quality of life scale (Q-LES-Q) and independent evaluation (CGI). The treatment benefits remained with both treatment groups when measured with self-report ADHD symptom scales. However, the hypnotherapy and CBT groups differed statistically significantly from each other in general psychological well-being (SCL-90), anxiety (SCL-90) and depression (BDI-II), and almost significantly in ADHD symptoms (SCL-16) indicating better long-term outcome for hypnotherapy. Independent evaluators’ ratings qualitatively supported the results. Hypnotherapy seems to be a usable method for treating ADHD in adults. The possible causes discussed for better longterm outcome for hypnotherapy than for CBT include stronger alliance in hypnotherapy, impact of deep relaxation to core symptoms and greater influence of hypnotherapy to emotional regulation. The generalization of the results requires further studies.

Inhibition and disinhibition in hypnosis

By Peter Naish
Volume 30, Issue 3 (p135-141)

This small-scale, quickly-administered study was designed as an initial exploration of the extent to which general inhibition plays a part in hypnosis. Some models of hypnosis emphasize the strategic use of prefrontal disinhibition, while others suggest that frontal regions become less involved overall, so that disinhibition is general rather than focused. A stop signal reaction time task was used to assess the level of inhibition available in high and low susceptible participants, both waking and hypnotized. Results implied that hypnosis increases inhibition for the highly susceptible. From this it is concluded that any disinhibition must be localized and strategic.

Enhancing memory with the Liverpool Interview Protocol: Is an association with hypnosis a problem?

By Graham F. Wagstaff, Jacqueline M. Wheatcroft, Jennifer D. Hoyle, Cormac Duffy
Volume 30, Issue 3 (p142-151)

The Liverpool Interview Protocol (LIP) is a brief memory facilitation procedure designed for use in forensic investigative interviews. However, as the LIP techniques were derived from hypnotic investigative interviewing techniques, concern has been expressed by some senior police officers about a possible negative association with hypnosis. The aim of the present study was to address this concern by investigating not only the accuracy of the LIP in facilitating memory but whether witnesses receiving the LIP judged themselves, and observers judged the witnesses, to be hypnotized using the Long Stanford Scale of Hypnotic Depth. The results showed that the LIP increased correct memory for details of a crime incident, without increasing errors or inflating confidence, whilst being no more associated by witnesses or observers with the label of ‘hypnosis’ than a standard interview or a rapport condition. It is concluded that a negative association with hypnosis does not appear to be a particular issue with the LIP. It is also noted that the Cognitive Interview has yet to receive similar scrutiny.